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Citing Sources  

Last Updated: Sep 8, 2016 URL: Print Guide

Chicago Citations Print Page

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is the offical guide of Chicago citation formatting. You can find the manual at the reference desk and in the reference section of the library's collection.

Cover Art
The Chicago Manual of Style - University of Chicago Staff (Editor)
Call Number: Z253 .U69 2010
Publication Date: 2010


Chicago Style

Chicago Citation Style is also called Turabian Citation Style.  This citation style is less common than MLA and APA citation styles. Use the links below to help citing your sources and formatting your paper in Chicago Style. 


Bibliography Page

The last page of your essay is called the "Bibliography" page. This is where you list the full citation of your sources in Chicago Style format. for more help, see below, or visit this Purdue OWL page.


Chicago Style format for Bibliography

When you use outside sources, you will need to create a Bibliography that tells your reader all the information they need to go find the source themselves if they want to.  Commonly used sources include:


Carley, Michael J. 1939: The Alliance That Never Was and the Coming of World War II. Chicago: Dee, 1999.

Journal Articles

Bharadwaj, Parag, and Katherine T. Ward. “Ethical Considerations of Patients with Pacemakers.” American Family Physician 78 (2008): 398-99.


Satalkar, Bhakti. “Water Aerobics.” July 15, 2010.


    Chicago Style Footnotes

    The style of Chicago/Turabian requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication.

    Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

    For example: 1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.

    When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote: 2. James, The Ambassadors, 14.

    Citing sources with more than one author

    If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” You should list all the authors in the bibliography;

    3. John K. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
    4. John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.

    Citing sources with no author

    It may not be possible to find the author/contributor information; some sources may not even have an author or contributor- for instance, when you cite some websites. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual:

    8. Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.

    Citing a part of a work

    When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. Below are different templates:

    Chapter in a book:

    11. Garrett P. Serviss, “A Trip of Terror,” in A Columbus of Space (New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.

    Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:

    12. Scott R Sanders, introduction to Tounchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work from 1970 to Present, ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), x-xii.

    Article in a periodical:

    13. William G. Jacoby, “Public Attitudes Toward Public Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (May 1994): 336-61.

    Citing online sources

    Generally, follow the same principals of footnotes to cite online sources. Refer to the author if possible and include the URL.

    18. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity: 2009),
    19. Bhakti Satalkar, “Water Aerobics,”, (July 15, 2010).

    Citing online sources with no author

    If there is no author, use either the article or website title to begin the citation. Be sure to use quotes for article titles and include the URL.

    20. “Bad Strategy: At E3, Microsoft and Sony Put Nintendo on the Defense,” BNET,, (June 14, 2010)

    Books to Help With the Writing Process

    The College of Marin Library has several books that can be consulted for quick help with all aspects of the writing process, including grammar, composition, and citing sources.



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