Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment
"Two-fifths report feeling unsafe at work, and 18% have concerns about attending conferences....Women of colour working in astronomy and planetary science experience high rates of harassment at work, a study finds. In a survey, a striking 40% of these scientists reported feeling unsafe in their workplaces owing to their gender, and 28% reported feeling unsafe on account of their race." From "Nature," July 14, 2017
Click link above for Rachael Lallensack's easy to read overview of the study. For original research article by Clancy et al., please see below. Here are three useful concepts from this original article for discussing obstacles facing women of color:
"double jeopardy," as in this sentence from their introduction (Clancy et al., page 2): "Women of color experience double jeopardy where they are especially at risk for verbal and physical harassment compared to white women or men of color."
"multiple marginality," as in this sentence from their abstract (Clancy et al., page 1): "We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace."
"intersection," "insectional," "intersectionality," as in this sentence from their introduction (Clancy et al., page 2): "Here we expand upon the notion that harassment and assault persist across many science disciplines with an intersectional approach that looks at the targeting that can occur among those with multiple marginality, particularly the 'double jeopardy' frequently described for women of color, as well as those marginal due to their rank in a culture that can be very hierarchical."
Inside the Double Bind
"Inside the Double Bind: A Synthesis of Empirical Research on Undergraduate and Graduate Women of Color in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics." From the "Harvard Educational Review":
"In this article, Maria Ong, Carol Wright, Lorelle Espinosa, and Gary Orfield review nearly forty years of scholarship on the postsecondary educational experiences of women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Their synthesis of 116 works of scholarship provides insight into the factors that influence the retention, persistence, and achievement of women of color in STEM fields. They argue that the current underrepresentation of women of color in STEM fields represents an unconscionable underutilization of our nation’s human capital and raises concerns of equity in the U.S. educational and employment systems. They refute the pervasive myth that underrepresented minority women are less interested in pursuing STEM fields and then present a complex portrait of the myriad factors that influence the undergraduate and graduate experiences of women of color in STEM fields. Finally, the authors discuss the policy implications of their findings and highlight gaps in the literature where further research is needed, providing a knowledge base for educators, policy makers, and researchers to continue the mission of advancing the status of women of color in STEM."
"Intersectionality, one of the foundational concepts within the social sciences, complicates traditional approaches toward the study of race, gender, class, and sexuality by treating these factors as interconnected variables that shape an individual's overall life experiences, rather than as isolated variables. Power, privilege, and oppression are often much more complex than has been traditionally thought, as an individual may be relatively privileged in one or more aspects of their life, while simultaneously experiencing prejudice, discrimination, or oppression stemming from other aspects of their social background or identity. Intersectionality seeks to explain how these different variables come together to shape experience, identity, and society."
Read entire article here. You will be asked to log in with MyCOM username and password.
Suggested citation for this article:
García, Justin D. "Intersectionality." Research Starters: Sociology, January. EBSCOhost
The Urgency of Intersectionality by Kimberlé Crenshaw
"Now more than ever, it's important to look boldly at the reality of race and gender bias -- and understand how the two can combine to create even more harm. Kimberlé Crenshaw uses the term "intersectionality" to describe this phenomenon; as she says, if you're standing in the path of multiple forms of exclusion, you're likely to get hit by both. In this moving talk, she calls on us to bear witness to this reality and speak up for victims of prejudice." From TED. Published on Dec 7, 2016.
"Meeting Lorraine" by Zawe Ashton
"I realized that I was not alone, that there were young women like me all over the world...all over the world." -- Lorraine O'Grady. "Filmmaker and actress Zawe Ashton visits conceptual artist Lorraine O’Grady in New York City to learn more about her work’s exploration of black female subjectivity." From Tate: Films about Art Every Week. Published on Jul 19, 2017. Favorite quote: “...I think that the images we have of black women to work with are either that they are so down-trodden or they are so powerful. It’s almost hard to relate to either end of that spectrum.”
Senga Nengudi and Linda Goode Bryant
"Senga Nengudi and Linda Goode Bryant remember the pioneering work of Just Above Midtown (JAM) art gallery." Published on Jul 24, 2017. TateShots from Tate. Favorite quote: "She had to fight people, and when I say fight…you know, there were certain white males that said, ‘We don’t want you here.’….They said, ‘We do not want you here.’” “Yeah! The art world was hostile. It was really, really, really hostile.”
Intersectionality in Three Minutes!
Super clear and fast! Created by Arshya Vahabzadeh, Jan 20, 2015. From the Khan Academy.